All about Oycs

Oystercatchers piping and parading - Aussie Pied Oycs in Sydney.

Oystercatchers piping and parading – Aussie Pied Oycs in Sydney.

Oystercatchers are among our favourite birds, being among the most charistmatic characters of the Charadriiformes. They occur on most of the world’s coastlines, with 11 living species globally. All belong to the Haematopus genus and are easily recognisable, following the same familiar oystercatcher design: all have much the same shape and size; a long, straight orangey-red bill and a bright orange or yellow eye-ring; fleshy-looking pink legs (Haematopus meaning ‘blood foot’, refers to the colour of the legs); and all advertise their presence with loud, excited piping calls. Six of the species have boldly pied plumage, four have all-dark plumage, and one indecisive species can have plumage that is either pied or all-black (we’ll be looking at that one very shortly).

With three endemic species of Oyc, New Zealand is rather a Haematopus hotspot, although the Chatham Island Oystercatcher occurs only on that remote island group and we won’t really talk about it here. The two species that are found on the main NZ islands are the Variable Oystercatcher and the South Island Pied Oystercatcher, our Stickybeak mascot. Arriving in NZ, we could see that both of these look strikingly similar to their Australian counterparts, the Sooty Oystercatcher and the Australian Pied Oystercatcher.

Australian Pied Oyc

Australian Pied Oyc – Western Australia

South Island Pied Oyc

South Island Pied Oyc – Kaikoura, NZ

Broome2015_Sydney July 2015_Sooty Oystercatcher1a

Sooty Oyc – New South Wales

NZ 2015_Variable Oystercatcher5b

Variable Oyc – Otago, NZ

The SIPO (as we call it for short) breeds mainly inland on the South Island of NZ, and migrates to the coast of both North and South Islands for the winter. Breeding inland is quite unusual among the world’s oycs, as the Eurasian Oystercatcher is the only other species that often does so. As a migratory species, the SIPO occasionally wanders off course and we were lucky enough to see one turn up in Sydney earlier this year.

NZ 2015_South Island Pied Oystercatcher6a

SIPO at home on a nice mown field at Timaru.

The Variable Oystercatcher is much more strictly coastal, and occurs all around the edges of NZ’s main islands. Our first impression of the VO, other than that it appeared exactly the same as the Sooty Oycs we were used to seeing in Australia, was that they didn’t seem to be variable at all. For several weeks, every VO we saw looked just like this:

NZ 2015_Variable Oystercatcher1a

A pair of typical Variable Oycs on the South Island. The bird on the right has a longer bill, and is probably the female.

In fact, the vast majority of VOs on South Island are boringly all-dark, but a small percentage are fully pied and strongly resemble the SIPO. The proportion of pied VOs does increase greatly the further north in NZ you go, and they may even outnumber the dark ones in the far north. There are also some intermediate, blotchy individuals that mainly just have an irregular white belly patch.

NZ 2015_Variable Oystercatcher8f

Variable Oyc, pied morph: the dull eye and leg colour show this is an immature bird.

NZ 2015_Variable Oystercatcher8d

Another Variable Oyc: a very blotchy, intermediate one this time.

A few more tips on how to tell a pied morph Variable from a South Island Pied Oyc. VOs can be larger, noticeably bulkier birds than SIPOS, with shorter and thicker bills. SIPOS often look oddly small-headed and have proportionately long, skinny beaks. Shape may be the easiest way to spot one of those sneaky pied morph VOs that masquerade as SIPOs. But there are other clues to look for. Where SIPO plumage is neatly divided into areas of black and white, VOs are a bit scruffier and tend to have a smudgy border to their white belly. SIPOs usually have a big white patch that extends from the belly up in front of the folded wing, while this is comparatively indistinct or lacking in VOs.

NZ 2015_Variable Oystercatcher8b

Variable Oyc. Slightly smudgy border to the black bib and very little white in the folded wing are good clues. The white curling around the wing-bend makes this one look quite SIPO-like.

NZ 2015_South Island Pied Oystercatcher2d

SIPO: Boldly and neatly black and white, with distinct white along the bottom edge of the wing (specifically the secondary feathers). The very long, narrow bill is another good pointer.

If in doubt, you can always wait for your mystery oystercatcher to fly. SIPOs have much more white in their wings than any VOs do, and have a big white wedge up their back.

NZ 2015_Variable Oystercatcher7h-001

Variable Oycs in flight. The Pied form has just a narrow, smudgy wing bar and smudgy rump.

NZ 2015_South Island Pied Oystercatcher9a-001

SIPO in flight, with much bigger and whiter bits.

Finally, here’s a curious oystercatcher feature to look out for: iris flecks, or iridial depigmentation if you want to sound very academic. If you get a very close look at an oyc’s eyes, you may notice that the pupil seems to be a funny shape, bulging out into the iris on one side. Here’s a SIPO with a large iris fleck:


Iris flecks have been studied in the Black Oystercatcher of North America and found to be a pretty good way to tell the bird’s gender: those with big flecks were almost always (94%) females; those with little or no flecking were almost always males. Similar results have also been found in American Oystercatchers. Looking at pics on the web, all oyc species seem to have eye flecking sometimes, and we’ve certainly noticed it on both of New Zealand’s species. We don’t know if anyone’s actually looked into it for these birds, but check out these Variable Oystercatchers we found near Kaikoura:

New Zealand 2015 pt23

Variable Oyc pair, in which one bird has an eye fleck (and the other has a sticky beak!)

These two were certainly a pair, and you can see that one has big iris flecks and the other doesn’t. What’s more, the flecked one has a proportionately longer bill, which strongly suggests that it is the female.

Here’s another pair we had a close look at, SIPOs in Timaru this time:

SIPO pair, one with a large iris fleck, the other with a slight fleck

SIPO pair, one with a large iris fleck, the other with a slight fleck

In this pair, both birds had iris flecks but one had a much larger fleck than the other. This bird also had the longer bill of the two, so again we think this is the female. So, on what we’ve seen so far, we think iris flecks could be useful for sexing oycs of both these New Zealand species too. We’ll be interested to have a close stickybeak at more oyc pairs to see if this is always the case.

To read more about oystercatchers of the world, check out Wader Quest’s nice posts on the subject starting here.

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